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Electric Vehicle Charging Stations - Equipment & Installation

Navigation: Minimum Sustainable Recommendations | What are the Issues? | What are the Options? | PDF version 

Did you know… The Manitoba Government is encouraging pathways to create a low-carbon province including initiatives such as installing electric vehicle charging infrastructure.

Minimum Sustainable Recommendations

Prior to going out to tender, the organization must determine the electric vehicle (EV) charging station power level(s) needed (see “What are the options” section below), number of stations required, installation requirements (e.g., electrical and network infrastructure) and accessibility needs.  In addition, the owner must determine the scope of the tender.  For instance, will separate tenders be issued to purchase the equipment (chargers) and to hire the installers, or will one tender be issued requesting both the equipment and installation.

Equipment

Once you have completed a needs assessment and determined what charging station power level(s) is required for your organization, you will need to consider the following additional options/features to enhance the functionality of your charger(s). This includes:

  • Number of connections – select chargers that fit the design of your parking space. Review options for single vehicle chargers and chargers that can accommodate two vehicles at the same time. 
  • Mounting options – including indoor and outdoor options, and whether it is wall or ground mounted etc. 
  • Cord management – retractable or shelf hook, etc.
  • Accessible Controls – Operable with one hand and not requiring grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist or force more than 5lbs (2.3kgs).
  • Alert notification – Software can be installed to notify building owners and/or users regarding status of vehicle charging, maintenance reminders, service requirements, vandalism, etc.
  • Payment options – Ensure the station has various channels to secure payment e.g., credit card, on-line payment, prepayment, smartphone app, payroll deduction, etc. 
  • Access control – If access control is required, there are a number of security options such as RFID, key fobs, pin numbers and card readers that can be included in the station.
  • Location apps – needed to publically register your location on existing smart phone apps. 
  • Service agreement - determine vendor maintenance service capabilities.
  • Warranties – Review options for extended warranties (product and service).
  • Renewable energy options – Review options to pair the chargers with solar panels to reduce energy costs.
  • Upgradability – EV charging stations should be able to accommodate system upgrades (e.g., new types of charging connectors/plugs, higher charge voltages, etc.).
  • Connectors for Level 3 chargers - If installing Level 3 equipment, (excluding Tesla) it should be equipped with both CHAdeMO and SAE Combo CCS connectors to accommodate all vehicle makes.

(NOTE: the charging station equipment must comply with standards such as SAE J1772, CHAdeMO, etc. applicable in North America).

Installation

In addition to ensuring electrical and building code requirements are met, a portion of the parking stalls with charging stations should be barrier free and accessible to all.  Accessible electric vehicle parking spaces do not necessarily need to be reserved as an accessible parking space, but they do need to be designed so that a driver with a disability can park, exit, and operate the charging station.  Consideration should be given to provide enough space to accommodate accessibility for both cars and vans. 

Here are guidelines to support accessible charging stations: 

  • An accessible route with compliant slopes must be provided from the accessible electric vehicle charging station to the accessible building entrance;
  • The parking space must comply with size and slope requirements for an accessible parking space:
    • The vehicle space must be 8x18 feet (approx. 2.4x5.5 meters) for a car or 11x18 feet (approx. 3.4x5.5 meters) for a van;
    • An adjacent access aisle no less than 60 inches (approx. 1.5 meters) in width must be provided; and
    • The ground surface slope of the vehicle space and access aisle cannot exceed 2% in any direction.
  • The charging station cannot obstruct transfer into and out of vehicles.
  • Ensure that bollards, wheel stops, or curb do not obstruct use of the charging station.
  • All operable parts of the charging station cannot exceed 48 inches (approx. 1.2 meters) above finish floor.

For further information and diagrams, please see: https://www.afdc.energy.gov/uploads/publication/WPCC_complyingwithADArequirements_1114.pdf

 

What are the issues?

Transportation is Manitoba’s largest source of carbon pollution, representing 39 per cent of the province’s total carbon output (Manitoba Climate and Green Plan, 2018). Currently, the majority of vehicles on our roads are combustion engines using fossil fuels. In Manitoba with electricity being produced from hydro, we can take advantage of electric vehicle technology to reduce emissions from transportation. As more electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles become available and society transitions to these vehicles, municipalities and businesses will need to provide electric charging infrastructure to commuters (e.g. employees, customers and citizens).

The Manitoba Green Building Policy supports green building certifications including LEED. To promote green vehicle technology and reduce pollution, LEED provides credit for the installation of electric vehicle supply equipment in at least 2% of the parking spaces associated with the building.

During the installation of electric vehicle charging stations, it is important to ensure the parking stalls and equipment are accessible to all. The Accessibility for Manitobans Act and its related Standards require entities to identify and prevent barriers to accessibility in operations. For a person who has a physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairment, a barrier is anything that interacts with that impairment in a way that may hinder the person's full and effective participation on an equal basis.

 

What are the options?

There is a wide variety of features available to enhance the functionality of electric vehicle charging stations. Before assessing what features to select, you must first determine the charging station power level needed for your project.

Below provides general information on the three common types of charging stations.  Please note due to a variety of factors (e.g., type of vehicle and energy already in the battery) the charging times for each charging station type are approximations based on averages. An electrical infrastructure assessment should be included as part of the charging station selection process. For further information please refer to https://www.hydro.mb.ca/your_home/power_smart/electric_vehicles.shtml

Level 1
(110V)

Electric vehicles come with portable 110V charging cables that can be used in conjunction with a standard outlet in a home garage. Level 1 charging is a slow charge, taking 12-16 hours to power up a battery that is completely depleted.  Under normal operating circumstances, full charge can be achieved in 8 hours.  Beyond residential, Level 1 is often considered suitable for multifamily properties and buildings with overnight or long-term parking, such as hotels and airports.

Level 2
(208-240V)

This station will charge a vehicle twice as fast as Level 1, typically in 2-4 hours depending on battery type and power left. With Level 2 charging, code requires the connector and cable to be hard wired to the power source. Offices, schools, businesses, and conference centers are an ideal fit for Level 2 chargers because guests are likely to be on their premise for several hours at a time.  Standard Level 2 connector in North America is the J1772. All vehicles (Asian, North American and European) in North America (except for Tesla) should be compatible with all standard Level 2 charging stations.

Level 3
(420-500V)

Most vehicles on the market are compatible with Level 3 charging. Level 3 offers the fastest charging power (20-30 minutes) but must also use DC power. Stop-and-go locations – coffee shops, bakeries, grocery stores, and retail – may choose Level 3 so customers only need 20-30 minutes to recharge. This is an especially attractive option for any business located along major thoroughfares where electric vehicle owners are driving long distances and need to address range anxiety.

There are several types of connectors needed to accommodate Level 3 charging of all vehicle makes.  Level 3 charging stations (excluding Tesla) should be equipped with both CHAdeMO and SAE Combo CCS connectors to accommodate all vehicle makes.  Tesla has proprietary Level 3 charging equipment.  However, with an adaptor, Tesla vehicles can be charged at standard Level 3 charging stations.

 

In a number of jurisdictions (e.g. British Columbia, Oregon and California), there is a concerted effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations in public settings. In the United States, The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) outlines guidelines and requirements to enhance the accessibility of these stations to all persons. For further information, please see: https://www.afdc.energy.gov/uploads/publication/WPCC_complyingwithADArequirements_1114.pdf

 

Last Updated: October 2018

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